Difference between Upward communication and Downward Communication withits comparison

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In this article we will discuss about Difference between Upward communication and Downward Communication with its comparison.




Upward Communication






In this process of communication, the information flows from lower level to upper level, it means from employees to manager, supervisor or any other higher level person. It is very important part of business management.







According to Bartol and Martin, “Upward communication is the vertical communication flows form lower level to one or more higher levels in the organization.”

According to Ricky W. Griffin, “Upward communication consists of messages form subordinates to superior.” According to Weihrich and Koontz, “Upward communication travels from subordinates to superiors and continues up the organizational hierarchy.”

According to Bovee and others, “Upward communication is the flow of information form lower level to higher levels in the organization.”

Downward Communication



In this communication process, the information flows from higher level to lower level it means from managers, supervisors to employees of the company. It provides relevant information, orders, and instructions to lower level management.

According to Ricky W. Griffin, “Downward communication occurs when information flows down the hierarchy form superiors to subordinates.”

According to Himstreet and Baty, “Downward communication is that form superior to subordinate-from boss to employee and from policy makers to operating personnel.”

Difference between Upward communication and Downward Communication with comparison:








Basis for comparisonUpwardDownward


Meaning
In this process of communication, the information flows from lower level to upper level, it means from employees to manager, supervisor or any other higher level person.In this communication process, the information flows from higher level to lower level it means from managers, supervisors to employees of the company.
Flow of communication Lower level to upper levelHigher level to lower level
PurposeWork like feedbackIt provides relevant information
Communication speedSlowFast
NatureDirective in natureNot directive
FrequencyIt happened frequentlyIt doesn’t happen frequently
ExamplesLetters and proposalsCirculars and notice

So we will discuss Difference between Upward communication and Downward Communication with its comparison. For any query comment below.






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Difference between Centralization and Decentralization with its comparison

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In this article we will discuss about Difference between Centralization and Decentralization with its comparison.

 Centralization 


Centralization means  the power and authority to the top level regarding decision and planning. It is opposite of decentralization. Top managers make all the decisions. Subordinates simply carry them out. In centralization the flow of communication is formal and vertical and there is systematic manner of communication. It is suitable for small organisations.

In political science, this refers to the concentration of a government's power - both geographically and politically, into a centralized government.

Relationship between Total Revenue, Average Revenue and Marginal Revenue

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In this article we will discuss about Relationship between Total Revenue, Average Revenue and Marginal Revenue.




Total Revenue

Total revenue means the total income received from the selling of different goods and different prices.

TR = AR x Q

According to Clower and Due, “it is a product planned sales and expected selling price”.



Average Revenue

Average revenue refers to the revenue obtained by the seller by selling of commodity per unit.

AR = TR

Q

According to MC Doonell, “Average revenue is the per unit revenue received from the sale of one unit of a commodity”.


Marginal Revenue

Marginal revenue refers to the net revenue received from the sales of additional unit of commodity.

MR = ∆TR/∆Q

According to Ferguson, “Marginal revenue is the change in total revenue which results from the sale of one more or one less unit of output.”

According to A. Koutsoyiannis, “The marginal revenue is the change in total revenue resulting from selling an additional unit of the commodity.”



Relationship between Total revenue, Average Revenue and Marginal Revenue.


In relationship between Total, Average and Marginal revenue we have to draw a table through which we explain their relationship are :



this table shows when AR is 10 TR and MR is also 10, When AR started decline From 10 to 9 TR started increases from 10 to 18, MR started decline to 8. When AR is 8 , TR is 24 and MR is 6.When AR is 5 , TR is 30 and MR is o and after that TR started decline and Marginal revenue goes to negative.



  1. When TR started increases AR and MR started decline.                  According to diagram when TR started increasing from 10 to 30 AR and MR started decline.

  2. When TR is Constant AR is decline but MR is zero.                                 According to the diagram when TR is at constant rate 30 AR started decline and MR is 0.

  3. When TR started decline MR goes to negative.                                           According to diagram when TR stared decline 30 to 10 , AR is decline and MR goes to negative.









So we will discuss Relationship between Total Revenue, Average Revenue and Marginal Revenue. For any query comment below.





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Concept of Revenue and its different types Total, Average and Marginal Revenue

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In this article we will discuss about Concept of Revenue and its different types Total, Average and Marginal Revenue.




Revenue





The term revenue means the profit or income generated from the sales of different goods at different prices.



REVENUE = COST + PROFIT

According to DOOLEY, “The revenue of a firm is its sales, receipts or income”.

There are different types of revenue i.e. Total revenue, Marginal revenue and Average revenue.

Total Revenue




Total revenue means the total income received from the selling of different goods and different prices.




Calculation of Total revenue

TR = AR x Q

Where,

TR = Total revenue

AR = Average revenue

Q = Output

Let we will discuss through example, If the price of x commodity is 10 and the person sold 5 units , so total revenue is

TR = 10 x 5

TR = 50

According to Dooley, “Total revenue is the sum of all sales, receipts or income of a firm”.

According to Clower and Due, “it is a product planned sales and expected selling price”.

According to Stonier and Hague, “Total revenue at any output is equal to price per unit multiplied by quantity sold”.

Average Revenue


Average revenue refers to the revenue obtained by the seller by selling of commodity per unit.

AR = TR

Q

Where,

AR = Average revenue

TR = Total revenue

Q = Output

According to MC Doonell, “Average revenue is the per unit revenue received from the sale of one unit of a commodity”.

Marginal Revenue




Marginal revenue refers to the net revenue received from the sales of additional unit of commodity.

MR = ∆TR/∆Q

According to Ferguson, “Marginal revenue is the change in total revenue which results from the sale of one more or one less unit of output.”

According to A. Koutsoyiannis, “The marginal revenue is the change in total revenue resulting from selling an additional unit of the commodity.”

So we will discuss Concept of Revenue and its different types Total, Average and Marginal Revenue. For any query comment below





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Difference between Sole Proprietorship and Partnership with its comparison

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In this article we will discuss about meaning of Sole Proprietorship and Partnership and also discuss Difference between Sole Proprietorship and Partnership with its comparison.




Meaning of Sole Proprietorship


Sole proprietorship refers to a business organization in which enterprises are controlled or owned by a single person. Sole proprietorship is the oldest form of business enterprise in India. It is the simplest form of business and all the risk or losses are bearer by single person. In case, if he wants any help they can get it from their friends, family or relatives. It doesn’t require any legal recognition or formalities and simplest way to open business.



It is also known in simple words one man business which is organized and controlled by single person.

According to William R. Basset “The one-man control is the best in the world if that man is big enough to manage everything”.

Partnership


The word partnership means an association in which two or more persons are agreed to form business by sharing their profits and sharing of losses.



According to Partnership Act, 1932 section 4 defines partnership, “Is the relationship between two or more person who are agreed to share profit of the business and carried all activities by them”.

Also Read :Concept of Partnership its meaning features advantages and disadvantages


According to Uniform Partnership Act of the USA partnership is “an association of two or more persons to carry on as co-owners a business for profit”.

In Partnership all the persons who are agreed to manage business with responsibilities have right to participants in business decisions and manages all activities of business organization.

Difference between Sole Proprietorship and Partnership


SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP V/S  PARTNERSHIP






Basic for comparison

Sole ProprietorshipPartnership


Meaning


Sole proprietorship refers to a business organization in which enterprises are controlled or owned by a single person.


The word partnership means an association in which two or more persons are agreed to form business by sharing their profits and sharing of losses.


Liability of members


Unlimited liability


Unlimited liability of all partners.


Governed under


Not specified Act.


Indian Partnership Act,1932


Minimum number of members


One member


Two members


Maximum members


One member


Unlimited


Maintenance of Secrecy


Secrecy maintained because only single person is there.


Risk maintaining secrecy because it is open to every partner.


Decision making


Quick decision making


It takes time in decision making.



So we will discussed  meaning of Sole Proprietorship and Partnership and also discuss Difference between Sole Proprietorship and Partnership with its comparison. For any query comment below.





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